Formality

Formality

Try to avoid
 
Contractions (it'll, there's)
All contracted forms need to be in full forms
E.g: it'll, it will / it's, it is / there's, there is
please note - can't, cannot (one word, not two)
 
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informal adjectives (hard, easy, big,)
some adjectives are seen as informal
Hard: difficult, complicated, harsh,  intolerable, unpleasant, undeniable,
Easy: effortless, elementary, facile, manageable, mere, obvious, simple, uncomplicated
Big: considerable, extensive, immense, substantial, tremendous  
 
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idioms
 these are often seen as informal and personal
(every coin has two sides..)
 metaphors  too (a rocky road ahead)
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No Personal pronouns (I, you, he, she, you, they)
Use 'There' as a subject; e.g. 'There is a serious risk of...'
Use 'It' as a subject; e.g. 'It is impossible to...'
Use 'One' as a subject; e.g. 'One may ask whether...' ('One' is a formal version of 'You' [plural] in general)
 
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s
 
Use Passive constructions
They can learn English effectively
English can be learnt effectively
c
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 c
Use Gerunds (ing forms)
They have to speak English
Speaking English is necessary
s
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c
Noun phrases
We analysed the data and we found evidence….
Analysis of the data provided evidence….
They have many exercises to fill in the missing words available to learn from.
The availability of gap fill exercises enhance learning
 c
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 c
Use Academic Word list (540 academic words)
High frequency academic words taken from a academic literature  [academic word list]
establish / acquisition / analysis / strategies / validity / beneficial / assumption / criteria / hypothesis / fundamental / initiative / presumption / differentiation / controversial / inevitable / intrinsic / exploitive / etc..
 c
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 c
Use fixed academic phrases..
It can be said / it could be argued that…
One major drawback of this approach is that …… / One of the most significant current discussions in……..
c
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c
Colloquial / informal words expressions
examples of informal / colloquial words are gonna / stuff / a lot of / things /
stuff:  effects, equipment, gear, goods, individual, kit, luggage, objects, paraphernalia, possessions, substances
a lot of: abundant, adequate, considerable,  plenteous, sizeable, substantial, sufficient, significant, voluminous
things: aspects, areas, elements, facts, figures, materials, points, situation, subject, information
 s
not sure use a synonym website: www.Thersaurus.com
c
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 c
Phrasal Verbs / two word verb forms
examples of these are put off  / look into / come across - there is usually a formal alternative;
put off - postpone
look into  - investigate
come across - discover 
c
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Informal Verbs
Some verbs are considered informal and there are more formal alternatives
For example; 'get'
acquire , accomplish, attain, become, capture, compass, draw, effect, elicit, evoke, extract, gain, obtain, realise, receive, secure, apprehend
c
A chart of formal and informal verbs
c
 
informal formal  informal  formal
seem
climb
help
stop
begin
use
shorten
show
go
want
ask
end
tell
get
keep
say no
free
mend
need
live
keep
appear
ascend
assist
cease
commence
consume
decrease
demonstrate
depart
desire
enquire
finish
inform
obtain
preserve
reject
release
repair
require
reside
retain
whole
wrong
worse
dim
enough
better
clear
understanding
lack
chance
in charge
lucky
sight
in the end
at once
at first
on and off
mainly
next
so
 
complete
incorrect
Inferior
Indistinct
sufficient
superior
transparent
comprehension
deficiency
opportunity
responsibility
fortunate
vision
finally
immediately
initially
intermittently
principally
subsequently
therefore
 
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