Try to avoid
Contractions (it'll, there's)
All contracted forms need to be in full forms
E.g: it'll, it will / it's, it is / there's, there is
please note - can't, cannot (one word, not two)
informal adjectives (hard, easy, big,)
some adjectives are seen as informal
Hard: difficult, complicated, harsh, intolerable, unpleasant, undeniable,
Easy: effortless, elementary, facile, manageable, mere, obvious, simple, uncomplicated
Big: considerable, extensive, immense, substantial, tremendous
these are often seen as informal and personal
(every coin has two sides..)
metaphors too (a rocky road ahead)
No Personal pronouns (I, you, he, she, you, they)
Use 'There' as a subject; e.g. 'There is a serious risk of...'
Use 'It' as a subject; e.g. 'It is impossible to...'
Use 'One' as a subject; e.g. 'One may ask whether...' ('One' is a formal version of 'You' [plural] in general)
Use Passive constructions
They can learn English effectively
English can be learnt effectively
Use Gerunds (ing forms)
They have to speak English
Speaking English is necessary
We analysed the data and we found evidence….
Analysis of the data provided evidence….
They have many exercises to fill in the missing words available to learn from.
The availability of gap fill exercises enhance learning
Use Academic Word list (540 academic words)
High frequency academic words taken from a academic literature [academic word list]
establish / acquisition / analysis / strategies / validity / beneficial / assumption / criteria / hypothesis / fundamental / initiative / presumption / differentiation / controversial / inevitable / intrinsic / exploitive / etc..
Use fixed academic phrases..
It can be said / it could be argued that…
One major drawback of this approach is that …… / One of the most significant current discussions in……..
Colloquial / informal words expressions
examples of informal / colloquial words are gonna / stuff / a lot of / things /
stuff: effects, equipment, gear, goods, individual, kit, luggage, objects, paraphernalia, possessions, substances
a lot of: abundant, adequate, considerable, plenteous, sizeable, substantial, sufficient, significant, voluminous
things: aspects, areas, elements, facts, figures, materials, points, situation, subject, information
not sure use a synonym website: www.Thersaurus.com
Phrasal Verbs / two word verb forms
examples of these are put off / look into / come across - there is usually a formal alternative;
put off - postpone
look into - investigate
come across - discover
Some verbs are considered informal and there are more formal alternatives
For example; 'get'
acquire , accomplish, attain, become, capture, compass, draw, effect, elicit, evoke, extract, gain, obtain, realise, receive, secure, apprehend
A chart of formal and informal verbs
|seem climb help stop begin use shorten show go want ask end tell get keep say no free mend need live keep||appear ascend assist cease commence consume decrease demonstrate depart desire enquire finish inform obtain preserve reject release repair require reside retain||whole wrong worse dim enough better clear understanding lack chance in charge lucky sight in the end at once at first on and off mainly next so||complete incorrect Inferior Indistinct sufficient superior transparent comprehension deficiency opportunity responsibility fortunate vision finally immediately initially intermittently principally subsequently therefore|
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