In-text Referencing

When you use information from a text you have to acknowledge it / state who said it.       Why?

  1. It’s not your idea
  2. You are not a published author
  3. Plagiarism is an academic crime = FAIL
The basics of in-text Harvard referencing / citation
Name : Christopher Smith

Use the surname only ‘Smith

Smith (2010) states that there were periods of rapid increase which were due to revolutions in technology, the successive inventions of tools, farming, and industrial processes.

The reporting verb is usually in the present simple

More reporting verbs - (for correct use of these verbs click here)

explains / describes / suggests / states / claims / asserts / contends / maintains / declares / implies / argues / emphasises / highlights / stresses / observes / notes / comments / points out / demonstrates / shows / proves / mentions / pinpoints / advances / puts forward / proposes / casts doubt on / questions
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Quotation

The page number and single quotation marks ‘……’
 

Smith (2010:221) states that Exeter Council spends £3.3 million each year on biofuel heating rather than £7 million it would spend if it still relied on oil and gas.

According to Smith (2010:221) Exeter Council spends £3.3 million each year on biofuel heating rather than £7 million it would spend if it still relied on oil and gas.

Exeter Council spends £3.3 million each year on biofuel heating rather than £7 million it would spend if it still relied on oil and gas (Smith, 2010:221)

Confusion: different punctuation – (Smith, 2010:221) or (Smith, 2010, p. 32) 0r (Smith, 2010, pp. 22) 
 

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Paraphrased sentences

Smith (2010) states that Exeter Council saves £4.7 million on heating from changing to sustainable energy.

Exeter Council saves £4.7 million on heating from changing to sustainable energy (Smith, 2010).

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Two Authors

Smith and Jones (2010) state that Exeter Council saves £4.7 million on heating from changing to sustainable energy.

Exeter Council saves £4.7 million on heating from changing to sustainable energy (Smith and Jones, 2010)

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Three Authors

Smith, Jones, and Clark (2010) state that Exeter Council saves £4.7 million on heating from changing to sustainable energy.

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More than 3 authors = ‘et al’

Look at punctuation –  Smith et al. (2010) and (Smith et al., 2010)

Smith et al. (2010) state that Exeter Council saves £4.7 million on heating from changing to sustainable energy.

Exeter Council saves £4.7 million on heating from changing to sustainable energy. (Smith et al., 2010)

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Different authors / different books – same idea  (synthesis)

chronological order (i.e. earliest first) - Smith 2010 / Jones 2012

Exeter Council saves £4.7 million on heating from changing to sustainable energy (Smith 2010; Jones 2012)

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An author quoting another author (as cited in)

You use the the main author’s name and date (from the book you are using: Smith 2010)

Jones (as cited in Smith, 2010) states that Exeter Council saves £4.7 million on heating from changing to sustainable energy.

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No date (n.d)

Smith (n.d) state that Exeter Council saves £4.7 million on heating from changing to sustainable energy.

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No Author

Exeter Council saves £4.7 million on heating from changing to sustainable energy (Anon., 2012)

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Websites

UK Governmental Policy Online (2010) states that Exeter council saves £4.7 million on heating from changing to sustainable energy.

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A quote over 20 words long has to be a separate paragraph

If you are quoting more than 20 words, separate the quote from your own writing, font 10 and indent it. Do not use quotation marks or italics. Introduce the quote using a signal phrase to identify the author and use a colon. For example:

Smith maintains that Exeter is a city of international importance:

In recent decades Exeter has become a cultural hub. The University is an internationally  renowned centre of excellence in various fields including business Management, Manufacturing, and Psychology Studies.Visitors also come to Exeter from all over the world to see the cathedral, which is famous for the beautiful stained glass windows and  architecture.

(Smith, 2010)

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 Ibid (the same reference as the last one)

The term ibid is used in referencing to avoid duplicating the same reference details in the body of your text. The term ibid is short for the Latin ibidem meaning ‘in the same place’ and is used when the next reference is the same as the last one
 
However, Jones et al. (2010) states that some indeterminate impacts, like water shortages due to over-extraction and soil degradation, may occur simultaneously. Secondly, various methods can be suggested in reducing food waste. Developing countries could improve food storage technology to cut part of wastage in transport and processing. On the other hand, developed countries need to raise citizens’ awareness in personal attitudes towards food because the main waste is in the public places or at home (ibid). 
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Op Cit (the reference as one used elsewhere)

The term op cit is short for the Latin opere citato, meaning ‘in the work cited’ and is used when the same reference is cited elsewhere in the body of your text, but is not the most recent citation.
 

The benefits of effective organizational learning are well-recognised in terms of improved innovation (Chanal, 2004), achieving and sustaining change (Boyce: 2003) and in developing competence (Drejer, 2000). But this process can be “…unpredictable and difficult to foster …” (Pedler, 2002: 534) and there is no overall consensus in the literature on how best to encourage effective organizational learning. Consensus is an important issue. But, it can be hard to foster, and Pedler (ibid: 539) states that “… consensus is etc etc”. The findings of some researchers (Boyce, op cit) show that …

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A website that creates in-text citation and bibliography – go here 

For more in-text referencing information - go here